Internet Time-Line Project: Beginning of Part 1; End of Part 1; Main page; Using the Time-line
|The 1970s||Computer networks grow rapidly not just in the US but also in UK and Europe. Academic and corporate networks also grow. 1970s:1|
Kahn and Dave Walden test the limits of the IMPs by
inducing congestion on the network of 4 nodes, aided by
Vint Cerf, Steve Crocker and Jon Postel. Frank Heart at BBN
(an IMP contractor)
instructs Will Crowther to work with Kahn to fix the
problems. Overall the network experiment is a success.
"The unique way in which ARPA went about its
business and its relationship with its contractor worked
The movie M*A*S*H, a black comedy about war, is released.
1967: The first IMP
|UCLA is connected to
BBN Cambridge, Massachusetts, via a new 50-kilobit
line. This is the first transcontinental link which is
"also an immediate boon to network maintenance and
The BBN team is able to do monitoring, maintenance and fix problems remotely, with the capability built into the IMPs' design 1970:3
|The ARPANET is growing
at a rate of one new node every month. 1970:4
Next to go online are:
AT&T installs cross-country 50-kilobit links between BBN and RAND, and between MIT and Uni of Utah. These are followed by more 50-kilobit links. 1970:5
1970s: Network growth
|Network Control Centre||IMPs have to report to the Network Control Centre at BBN every minute to confirm that they are alive. 1970:6||
Above: Remote monitoring
Network goes operational
Network Control Centre
|Alex McKenzie, convinced
that the network is now ready to upgrade from
experimental to operational, is appointed by Frank Heart
to take charge of the Network Control Centre; his opinion
was that the network should be run like "an electrical
The NCC is moved into a new BBN building designed like a fortress against possible attacks by anti-war protesters
|The IMPs begin to download new operating software via a distributive propagation in which "every IMP downloaded the software from a neighbour". An IMP can also restore its own operating system this way, in case of damage. 1970:8|
|TIP (Terminal IMP)||Larry Roberts and Frank Heart's team discuss ways to enable terminals to connect directly with IMPs. This would open up the community to casual users, further realizing Licklider's vision. The terminals would connect via dial-up lines, and the device to host them would be called a Terminal IMP, or TIP. The first TIP can handle up to 64 terminals. 1970:9||
1967: The first IMP
|BBN begins to explore connecting peripheral terminal devices to the network. The Network Control Centre expands with the network and is staffed round the clock 1970:10|
|FTP and Telnet||BBN begins to sit in with
the NWG to work on the host-to-host protocol, FTP and
Telnet. "It was TIPs and Telnet together that paved
the way for rapid expansion of the network".
FTP would be "the first application to permit two machines to cooperate as peers instead of treating one as a terminal to the other".
1969: NWG's Telnet
|Intel introduces the microprocessor. 1971:1|
|Not enough traffic!||The ARPANET is carrying an average of 675,000 packets a day, less than 2% of its capacity of 30 million packets a day. "[A] program could be moved around the network at such a speed as to approximate real time" 1971:2||
1970: 1 node per month
|DARPA gives up ARPANET||DARPA doesn't want to run the ARPANET any more as it has completed its computer research mission, and running the network is draining its resources. Larry Roberts (who is in charge of the ARPANET project) wants to sell it to a private contractor, and asks AT&T to see if they are interested. AT&T could have monopolized the ARPANET, but they decide that packet-switching is incompatible with circuit-switching. 1971:3||
Around 1959: AT&T not interested
|NCP||A basic protocol, the Network Control Protocol (NCP) emerges. 1971:4||1974: TCP paper
|The first pocket calculator is introduced in the UK. 1972:1||
|Secret files||Public outcry erupts over the US Army's "information-gathering" on suspected civilian troublemakers in the political unrest in the late '60s. The files are ordered to be destroyed immediately. 1972:2||1975:
|E-mail (between 2 machines)||Ray Tomlinson at BBN engages
the first e-mail delivery between 2 machines.
His scheme consists of 2 separate programmes, SNDMSG and READMAIL. Although technically trivial, the experiment is a historical breakthrough. This is the guy responsible for the @ sign.
Tomlinson's programmes are released on the ARPANET in the same package as Abhay Bhushan's newly finalised file-transfer protocol (FTP).
|ARPA demonstrates the
network at the first International Conference on
Computer Communication in Washington (ICCC). During a
demonstration to AT&T officials, the computers crash,
and the officials dismiss packet-switching as non-viable.
Nevertheless, the conference proves that packet-switching works at the national level. This is attested by overseas network people such as Donald Davies from UK and Louise Pouzin (see next paragraph) from France, who also attended the conference. There is a consensus that the next step will be an international network.
1971: AT&T doesn't give a dinkin' datagram
|French Cyclades||Packet-switching network projects in France and England are successful. Louis Pouzin builds Cyclades, "a French version of the ARPANET".|
|INWG||The leaders of several national networking projects form the International Network Working Group (INWG). INWG produces the CATENET (Concatenated Network), "a transparent interconnection of networks of disparate technologies and speeds".||
|Roberts' radio packet network||Larry Roberts outlines a scheme based on the ALOHANET, this time with mobile computers. The army is intrigued, and experiments with wireless, distributed packet networks. Years later, the program is phased out due to technical expenses. 1972:6|
|SATNET||However, the wireless experiment leads to SATNET in the 1970s, a satellite network between America and Europe. SATNET does well, until transatlantic phone cables are upgraded from copper to fibre-optics. 1972:7||
1960: Satellite phone
|ARPA renamed DAPRA||ARPA has been renamed DARPA (D for Defense) to reflect its commitment to defence research. 1972:8|
DCA runs ARPANET for now
|Sale of the ARPANET to TELENET (a subsidiary of BBN to market a private packet-switching service) falls through due to a conflict of interest (Larry Roberts is leaving DARPA's Information and Techniques Processing Office to join TELENET and thus cannot "recommend the sale by the government"). ARPANET is temporarily transferred to the Defense Communications Agency (DCA). 1973:1||
1971: DARPA doesn't want ARPANET
|IMP source code||BBN refuses to release the IMP source code, effectively limiting IMP maintenance and repair to BBN personnel only. DARPA has to threaten to divert $6 million in contracts away from BBN. BBN relents and distributes the source code for a small fee. This represents one of the first cases of serious issues related to intellectual property. 1973:2|
|Internetting Project||ARPA gives birth to the Internetting Project to link Larry Roberts' packet radio network to the ARPANET. 1973:3||
1972: Packet radio network
|Gateways||Vint Cerf and Bob Kahn come
up with the idea of gateway routing computers to
negotiate between the various national networks. 1973:4
This leads to the 1974 paper, "A Protocol for Packet Network Intercommunication"
|Net traffic||Meanwhile, traffic on the ARPANET has grown to "a daily average of 3.2 million packets" 1973:5||
1971: Not enough traffic
|RD||Larry Roberts writes the first e-mail managing software called RD. People take to it instantly. Soon variations of RD proliferate. 1973:6||
1972: E-mail between 2 machines
|ARPANET News by SRI (Standford Research Institute) is born a newsletter distributed on paper and electronic form.|
|USING||A lobby group called USING, comprising net users, draws up "plans and recommendations for improving the delivery of computer services over the ARPANET". Nine months later, DARPA sends out a warning that they are overstepping boundaries, and the group dies off eventually.|
Alto personal computer
|Bob Metcalfe at Xerox PARC
develops the Ethernet.
Metcalfe was inspired while working to improve the ALOHANET. The technology is developed for one of the first personal computers, the Alto from Xerox PARC, without the need for expensive IMPs. In an Ethernet, machines talk to each other like humans: when more than one tries to talk at the same time, someone will randomly go first, while the rest wait for it to finish.
|1973-75||The ARPANET expands at a
rate of one new node every month. Network access becomes
more open. 1973:9
Contracting for computer services on the ARPANET has become cost-saving due to economy of scale. Large databases are becoming popular. 1973:10
1973: Net traffic
|Bob Kahn and Vint
Cerf write a paper called "A Protocol for Packet
Network Intercommunication" describing
transmission-control protocol (TCP), essentially a method
incorporating a digital envelope (a datagram) to send
Whereas NCP (network control protocol) was designed for the ARPANET, TCP is a "more independent protocol" needed for linking ARPANET, SATNET and Larry Roberts' packet radio network. The paper also introduces the notion of gateways, which would read only the envelope so that only the receiving hosts would read the contents.
TCP also makes network transmission more reliable because the sending host has to receive acknowledgment from the receiving host to verify the transmission. 1974:1
|At around this time, the NSF raises the issue of building an academic network. 1974:2|
|US Altair produces the first portable computer. 1975:1||
1972: Pocket calculator
|DCA takes over ARPANET||The DCA (Defense Communications Agency) takes over the running of ARPANET. The is because federal law requires that ARPANET cannot be sold to an external party before checking to see if the Defense Department wants it. The guys at BBN complain of the increased red tape. 1975:2||
1973: DCA runs ARPANET
|TCP specifications||Yogen Dalal at Stanford takes Kahn and Cerf's 1974 paper and comes up with implementable specifications for TCP. 1975:3||
1974: TCP paper
|Secret files||Allegations surface that the files that were supposed to have been destroyed by the US Army in 1973 had instead been archived on the ARPANET. The story is reported in "the most draconian, cloak-and-dagger terms". The public is outraged that something like ARPANET existed. DARPA is called to account. Old print-outs reveal that the Army was responsible, but now DARPA is perceived to be in bed with the Army's secret operations. 1975:4||
1972: Files ordered to be destroyed
|MSG||John Vittal writes the MSG mailing
programme which has an ANSWER command, making it easy to
reply to e-mails. People won't have to retype or mistype
e-mail addresses. MSG is the original 'killer
application' that made e-mail popular, and is still in
use in the 1990s.
"More than just a great hack, MSG was the best proof to date that on the ARPANET rules might get made, but they certainly didn't prevail. Proclamations of officialness didn't further the Net nearly so much as throwing technology out on the Net to see what worked. And when something worked, it was adopted."
Whitfield Diffie and
Martin Hellman at Stanford University invent
public-key encryption, realising that it will empower the
masses. They publish the paper "New Directions in
Diffie and Hellman's scheme does not require the key to first pass through a secure channel. Each party has a secret key. They exchange mathematical information about each other's key to create a session key which can be used to encrypt future messages. The scheme requires real-time communications and thus cannot be used for e-mail.
1957: 4th Amendment
|A private American company, Quasar
Industries, launches a robot selling for $4000 which is
claimed to be able to do anything a domestic maid could
do, and more, including "teach the kids
French". Artificial intelligence researchers
recognize the robot as a fraud and speak out openly on the
ARPANET. The robot is in fact remote-controlled during
Some users realize that the ARPANET is now being used for personal communication that contain potentially libellous speech. They begin to practise and encourage self-censorship, or using disclaimers, for fear of attracting government supervision of ARPANET.
|"What emerged from the debate was strong evidence that the networking community felt a deep stake in the creation of the Net, ARPA funding or no ARPA funding, and was trying jealously to guard its right to determine its future. In a realm where, in a sense, personal identity is defined entirely by the words people choose, free speech seemed second only to concern for the survival of the realm itself."|
|NSA approves DES||NSA approves and publishes a weakened version of DES (Data Encryption Standard), a secret key encryption scheme requiring the key to first pass through a secure channel. The DES is not allowed to be exported outside the US. 1977:2||
1952: Truman forms NSA; NSA's 701
|RSA encryption||Meanwhile, three young professors at MIT
receive the Diffie-Hellman paper, and implement a
workable public-key encryption system. The system is
called RSA, named after Ronald Rivest, Adi Shamir and Len
Scientific American offers a reward of $100 for anyone who could decrypt a sentence code in the form of a 129-digit number encrypted with RSA. It won't be until 17 years later in 1994 that the code is cracked.
1976: Diffie & Hellman
|MODEM||Ward Christensen writes the programme "MODEM" and releases it into the public domain. MODEM allows two microcomputers to exchange files with each other over a phone line, using modems with acoustic couplers. 1977:4||1978: CBBS & CommuniTree
are getting out of hand. Some headers were as long as 35
lines. Ken Pogran, John Vittal, Dave Crocker and Austin Anderson
announce RFC 724 (RFC = Request For Comment), a proclamation of
a new e-mail standard.
It is titled "A Proposed Official Standard for the Format of ARPA Network Messages". The standard contains specifications pertaining to syntax, semantics and "lexical formalities".
Responses to RFC 724 are not enthusiastic. Jon Postel criticizes the standard for its claim to being "official". Alex McKenzie at BBN says that the ARPANET does not work on official standards, but perfects itself by trial and cooperation in an process of "step-by-step evolution". RFCs should thus play only the role of documenting such steps.
1969: the first RFC
|Cerf, Kahn and others link up 3 networks using TCP: packet radio, ARPANET and SATNET. Messages travel 94,000 miles from San Francisco to London to California "without dropping a single bit". 1977:6||
1974: the TCP paper
|November 1977||RFC 724 is re-written and published as RFC 733, now intended "strictly as a definition". Mail programs start to conform to the new guidelines, but within a year, conflicts pick up again. The problem is that the standard is incompatible with John Vittal's popular MSG mailing program. 1977:7||
|The first magnetic tape is introduced by US Oyz. 1978:1|
|TCP/IP||Inspired by Xerox PARC's PARC Universal Packet (PUP), Cerf, Postel and Danny Cohen come up with Internet Protocol (IP) by isolating the part of TCP which deals with routing packets. IP will be in charge of routing the packets, while TCP will take care of the packeting, error control, re-transmission and reassembly. TCP/IP enables fast and inexpensive gateways to be built. 1978:2||
1977: TCP works
|Ward Christensen and Randy Suess create
the first BBS, Computer Bulletin Board System (CBBS) in
Chicago, and tell people how to start their own BBSes. 1978:3
In Santa Cruz, California, the CommuniTree BBS goes online with a vision to build a spiritual community. Eventually, the BBS gets choked to death by antisocial teenaged students, causing A.R. Stone to conclude: "Thus, in practice, surveillance and control proved necessary adjuncts to maintaining order in the virtual community." 1978:4
A BBS distributes messages over phone lines between users on personal computers equipped with modems. The communication is independent of the Internet. BBS software is inexpensive, and anyone with a personal computer, a modem and a phone line can start one.
1973: Xerox's Alto, the 1st personal computer
|British Telecom launches the first videotext information system. 1979:1||
1975: Portable computer
|CSNET proposal||NSF receives a proposal to
build the CSNET (Computer Science Research Network) is
submitted by a group of universities, initiated by Larry
Landweber at the University of Wisconsin.
CSNET will be independent of the ARPANET (due to defence security restrictions), and will be cheaper to build, using slower links and no redundancy. ARPANET has been expensive to subscribe, and computer science research is falling behind due to lack of computer networking. Universities need a network to stay competitive and to train the next generation of computer scientists.
NSF rejects the proposal but remains enthusiastic.
1974: NSF network idea
|XMODEM||Keith Peterson and Ward Christensen release XMODEM, a new file transfer protocol with error-correction, based on MODEM. 1979:3||
|Intel develops the RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computer) chip. 1980s:1||
|Early 1980s||Non-military networks join the Internet.
A couple hundred networks are wired up. 1980s:3
1973-75: ARPANET expands
|Landweber's committee comes up with a new proposal for CSNET, with a 3-tier structure (ARPANET, TELENET and an e-mail only network called PHONENET) to provide cheap access for everyone. The tiers are connected by gateways. The National Science Board (NSF's umbrella body) agrees to provide $5 million for CSNET. 1980:1||
|USENET||USENET is started by graduate students as a link between University of North Carolina and Duke University. It eventually blossoms into a distributed news network using UUCP. 1980:2||1986: other
|IBM introduces the desktop microcomputer, the IBM-PC 1981:1||
|Berkeley UNIX||Bill Joy at Berkeley writes a version of UNIX with TCP/IP. 1981:2||1982:
Sun distributes UNIX
Sun distributes TCP/IP
|Bill Joy from Berkeley joins the new Sun (Stanford University Network) Microsystems as a UNIX expert. The first Sun workstations come with Joy's UNIX with TCP/IP for free. This would be an important factor in the entrenchment of TCP/IP. 1982:1||
1981: Berkeley UNIX
|SMTP||So far, e-mail has been riding on FTP. Jon Postel decides to build a separate mechanism for mail transfer, calling it SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol). It has new features and will be implemented together with the impending switch to TCP/IP. 1982:2||
Switch to TCP/IP
|On January 1st, ARPANET
makes its official transition to TCP/IP. The network can
now branch anywhere, and network data transfer is a piece
For security reasons, the Defense Communications Agency splits the ARPANET into
The two networks are connected by a gateway, so users can't tell the difference.
|Esprit||Esprit (European Strategic Programme for Research and Information Technology) is established by the EEC to coordinate the European Information Technology industry. 1983:2|
|DNS proposal||Jon Postel, Paul Mockapetris
(ISI) and Craig Partridge (BBN) publish two RFCs
describing the Domain Name System (DNS) using
tree-branching structure and specific-to-general
addressing. "Eventually, a committee agreed on seven
'top-level' domains: edu, com, gov, mil, net, org and
int." They stand for:
1977: Standardising e-mail headers
|More than 70 CSNET sites are online. 1983:4||
1980: 3-tier structure
|Fido BBS||Standard modem speed is 300 bps, slower
than the average human reading speed, and modems are still
quite expensive around US$500. The BBS is still an
exclusive technical hobby.
Tom Jennings, a visitor of CBBS, creates Fido BBS. Flames are common, but Jennings leaves it to users to deal with them. His philosophy: "Thou shalt not offend; thou shalt not be easily offended." Fido has been described as having a "street" atmosphere, and will later expand into Fidonet.
1978: CBBS & CommuniTree
Apple Macintosh; CD-ROM; cyberspace
|Apple introduces the
Macintosh with mouse and window interface. The CD-ROM is
introduced as data-storage device. 1984:1
William Gibson publishes Neuromancer, in which he coins the word cyberspace.
1981: IBM PC
|Fidos proliferate||Tom Jennings helps one of his users create a version of his Fido BBS software for another computer platform. The system files can now be downloaded by users, and as a result, Fido BBSes proliferate. 1984:2||
1983: the 1st Fido
Transputer; fibre optics
(UK) manufactures the transputer, a microprocessor with
integral memory designed for parallel processing.
In the US, fibre optics are first used to link mainframe computers.
1972: fibre optic links
|With the availabilty of affordable 1200
bps modems, it is no longer prohibitively expensive to
echo e-mails over long-distances late at night when phone
rates are lowest. Tom Jennings assigns each Fido BBS with
a unique node number, and Fido BBSes across America begin
to observe the "National Fido Hour" from 1
to 2 am nightly when the BBSes call each other up to
At around this time, the introduction of Echomail in Fidonet makes it possible for conferences between many users, instead of simply one to one.
Fidonet continues to grow.
1984: Fidos proliferate
|NSF backbone||5 supercomputer centres are
scattered throughout the US, and the NSF agrees to build
a backbone to link them together. NSF offers free access
to the backbone network (called NSFNET) if geographical
regions build for themselves community networks. As a result,
community networks begin to sprout, including:
Networks can now choose between connecting with ARPANET or NSFNET. NSFNET soon becomes more popular as it is faster and easier to connect with. 1985:4
|1986: CSNET success
Networks ahoy = Internet!
all computer science departments and many private
computer research sites in the US are connected to CSNET. The CSNET
success parallels other networks:
All these networks communicate with TCP/IP and as a result come to be collectively called the Internet.
(Presumabely, all these networks have gateways to the NSF backbone.)
1983: CSNET grows
|Global Internet||Other countries have their
own networks too:
Eventually these networks build gateways to the US Internet, and the Internet comes to mean the international network. National boundaries begin to dissolve. 1986:3
1980s: Hundreds of networks
|NSF takes over Internet||The NSF (National Science Foundation) takes over Internet responsibility from DARPA. 1986:4||1989: ARPANET
|IBM labs in Zurich discover high-temperature superconductors with potential for superconducting computers in the future. 1986:5||
|DNS summit||Representatives from major networks meet on the West Coast for a grand summit meeting, and agree to use DNS. 1986:6||
1983: DNS proposal
|Interop||Dan Lynch starts the Interop trade show to promote TCP/IP. It is attended by hardcore networking people for the first couple of years. 1986:6||1989: Internet attracts business
|Fidonet piggybacks on Internet||At around this time, Tim Pozar at SRI (Stanford Research Institute) begins working on a scheme to distribute Fidonet e-mail globally over the Internet. In other words, the Internet acts as a link between Fidonet nodes in different parts of the world. Ken Harrington at SRI provides administrative and finanial support. 1986:7||
ISO (International Organization for Standardization)
produces the OSI (Open Systems Interconnection) protocol.
US and European government adopt it as the official
standard, but it never catches on because TCP/IP was
there first and, more importantly, has proven itself. 1988:1
TCP/IP is also very open: it can support all sorts of networks. Another reason for TCP/IP's success is the support by UNIX. 1988:2
1977: RFC 724
Internet draws business
|Dan Lynch's Interop
trade show attracts business people including
"Novell, Synoptics, and Network General". The
Internet is starting to appeal to the business world.
Its success provided an object lesson in technology and how it advances. "Standards should be discovered, not decreed," said one computer scientist in the TCP/IP faction.
1986: The 1st Interop
|ARPANET retires||Mark Pullen, a program manager at DARPA, retires the ARPANET, since the much faster NSFNET has taken over as the major backbone. ARPANET is 20 years old. 1989:2||
1983: ARPANET and MILNET
|Early 1990s||Wired networks number over 7,500 worldwide, reaching people in more than 75 countries. 1990s:1||
1986: Global Internet
|1990||Internet users are estimated to number 5 to 10 million. 1990:1||
1990s: No. of networks
|The National Science Foundation (NSF) lifts restrictions against commercial use of the Internet. Electronic commerce on the Net is now possible. Some of the early founders of the Net bemoan this, while others welcome it. 1991:1||
1990s: Wired figures
|PGP 1.0||Phil Zimmerman releases the
PGP (Pretty Good Privacy) encrypting programme,
essentially an amalgamation of the Diffie-Hellman
algorithm, RSA and standard secret key encryption. The
program finds it way to Usenet.
incorporates a digital signature and can be used with
e-mail. PGP-encoded messages are virtually uncrackable by
today's computers. PGP has become the de facto
standard for e-mail encryption.
Unable to get a licence for the RSA
algorithm, and with an impending ban on strong
cryptography, Zimmerman releases PGP 1.0, knowing that it
1976: Diffie and Hellman
|RSA threatens to sue unless Zimmerman stops distributing PGP. Although he complies, the programme and its source code are already circulating on the Net. 1991:3|
|PGP attracts attention from the National Security Agency (NSA) part of the US Defence Department in charge of encryption. NSA believes that encryption should only be used by the government to fight crime and win wars. 1991:4||
1977: NSA's DES
|PGP 2.0||The combined effort of supporters from the Netherlands, New Zealand, France and Spain results in PGP 2.0. NSA gets really pissed off by the fact that the technology is in foreign hands. 1991:5||
Above: PGP 1.0
|Apple Powerbook||Apple releases the Powerbook laptop microcomputer, able to function as a desktop. 1991:6|
Digital Telephony Bill
|The FBI drafts the
Digital Telephony bill to counter the loss of
eavesdropping capability as new technology arrives.
Essentially, they want wire-tapping capability to be built into communications infrastructure. Without support in Congress and with strong civil opposition, the bill dies.
1991: NSA on PGP
announces that it will assign 3 major administrative
functions to private corporations. They are:
1991: NSF deregulates e-commerce
Zimmerman's legal woes
|The US government represented by assistant attorney William Keane tries to decide whether Zimmerman should be charged with exporting munitions without a licence. 1993:2||
Digital Telephony Law
is legislated. It requires phone companies to re-wire
their networks so that the FBI can tap in. Civil rights
supporters like Senator Leahy and the Electronic Freedom
Foundation work to delete on-line information services
from the legislation. Court orders are also required.
The civil rights supporters include AT&T, DEC, Lotus, Microsoft and Sun Microsystems.
1991: Digital Telephony bill
|Clipper chip||Meanwhile, the Clinton
Administrations proposed Clipper chip faces
widespread opposition from academics and civil rights
groups and dies eventually of technical flaws.
The Clipper chip is developed by the NSA and is an encryption scheme in which the government would hold a key in escrow to all encrypted data.
1991: Digital Telephony bill
|DES in foriegn hands||A study by the Software Publishers Association reveals that although the US closely guards DES, there are 152 DES-based products being developed and distributed by 33 foreign countries, and the foreign versions are in fact superior to the American version.||
|Code broken||Back in 1976, Scientific American offered a reward to decrypt an RSA code. An international team from 24 countries finally takes 8 months and 1600 workstations to crack the code. 1994:3||
1977: the RSA challenge
|1995||There are 30 to 40 million Internet users in the world (estimated). 1995:1||
1990: No. of users
|The US government gives up prosecuting Zimmerman for releasing PGP. Investigations are officially closed. No reasons are given, but it could be due to the legal difficulties of charging Zimmerman (raising First Amendment issues) and his strong team of legal defence. 1996:1||
1993: The charge
For the latest development on cryptography issues: http://www.cdt.org
End of Internet Time-line
Last updated: 10 May 1997